Tawheed (1 / 2) : Its Meaning and Importance
    
الأحد 26 / ربيع الثاني / 1431 هـ - الموافق 11 / أبريل / 2010 م


TAWHEED
Its Meaning and Importance
(Part 1 of 2)

Prepared by: Um Abdullah al-Misawi
for as-salaf.com







Tawheed: Its importance.

- It is the purpose of the creation of Man and Jinn.
Allaah Ta'aala said: {And I did not create the jinn and mankind except to worship Me.} [51: 56]

- It is the actual message of the Prophets alayhem assalam.
Allaah Subhaanahu Wa Ta'aala said: {And We sent not before you any messenger except that We revealed to him that, "There is no deity except Me, so worship Me."} [21:25]

- Good deeds are not accepted without Tawheed.
Rasoolullah Sallallaahu 'Alayhi Wa Sallam said: ”Allah Tabaraka Wa Ta'ala said: "I am the One Who does not stand in need of a partner. If anyone does anything in which he associates anyone else with Me, I shall abandon him with one whom he associates with Allah."“ [Saheeh Muslim]
Yahya Ibn Sallaam Rahimahullah (d. 200 H.) said commenting on the Aayah: {And speak words which are Sadeed – 33: 70} “Sadeed means: Just, and that is "Laa Ilaaha Illallaah", {He will [then] amend for you your deeds – 33:71}, good deeds are not accepted except from one who says: La ilaha illa Allah (None is worthy of worship but Allah), sincerely from his heart.” (1)

- Jannah is forbidden upon one who associates partners (commits shirk) with Allaah.
Allaah Ta'aala said: {Indeed, he who associates others with Allaah - Allaah has forbidden him Paradise, and his abode is the Fire.} [5: 72]

- Whoever associates partners with Allaah his deeds are worthless.
Allaah Subhaanahu Wa Ta'aala said: {But if they had associated others with Allaah, then worthless for them would be whatever they had done.} [6:88]

- It (Tawhid) is the greatest reason for the forgiveness of sins.
It comes in a Hadeeth Qudsi: ”And whoever meets Me with an earth full of sins without associating any partners with me, I will meet him with a similar amount of forgiveness.“ [Saheeh Muslim]
And other than that.


Tawheed: is Laa Ilaaha Illallaah

Allah Ta'ala said: {And We sent not before you any messenger except that We revealed to him that, "La Ilaha Illallah”} [21: 25]
The Prophet -Sallallaahu 'Alayhi Wa Sallam- said: Whoever says: "La Ilaha illa Allah", and rejects whatever is worshipped besides Allaah, his blood and wealth becomes forbidden, and his reckoning is upon Allaah.“ [Saheeh Muslim]
And in another narration: Whoever professes Tawheed (the Oneness of Allah)…“, then he mentioned like the previous hadeeth. [Saheeh Muslim]

Uthman Ad-Darimi (d. 280 H.) said: «And the explanation of At-Tawheed according to the Ummah, and the correct view; is: La Ilaha Illallah, Wahdahu la sharika Lahu * » (2)
Abu Ja`far An-Nahhas (d. 338 H.) said: “The words of Allaah 'Azza Wa Jal: {Indeed they, when it was said to them "La Ilaha Illallah", were arrogant}.[37:35] meaning: arrogant in (accepting) the Tawheed of Allah 'Azza Wa Jal. (3)

Abu Abdullah Al-Qurtubi (d. 671 H.) said: “And in {Say, "He is Allaah, [who is] One,} ([12: 1] is complete Tawheed. And in this meaning comes the statement of Rasoolullaah Sallallaahu 'Alayhi Wa Sallam to Ubayy (Radhiallaahu 'Anhu) ”Which Aayah (verse) in the Qur'aan is the greatest?" he said: {Allaah - la ilaha illa Huwa, the Ever-Living, the Sustainer of [all] existence.} [2: 255], and it is the greatest verse because it is complete Tawheed, like how the Messenger of Allah -Sallallaahu 'Alayhi Wa Sallam- saying: ”The best (word) which I and the Prophets -'Alayhimus Salaam- before me had said is: "La Ilaha Illallah, Wahdahu, la sharika Lahu” * was the best Dhikr, “ because it is words which encompass all the knowledge of Tawheed. (4)
Ibn Katheer (D. 774 H.) said: {And it was not for us to associate anything with Allaah. That is from the favor of Allaah upon us and upon the people.} [12: 38] This is Tawheed, and that is declaring that "La Ilaha Illallah, Wahdahu, la sharika Lahu" * (5)
Ibn Rajab Al-Hanbali (D. 795 H.) said: And perhaps the one who says: The intended meaning by uprightness on Tawheed; meant the complete Tawheed which saves its owner from the Hell fire, and that is fulfilling the meaning of "La Ilaha Illallah", because al-ilah (god; deity) is the one who is worshipped, who is obeyed and not disobeyed, who is feared, revered, venerated, loved, has hope in, has reliance upon, and supplicates to. (6)


Tawheed: Its meaning and purpose is worshipping Allah alone.

The meaning of the word of Tawheed "La Ilaha Illallah", as the people of knowledge have explained, is: There is no one worthy or deserving of worship but Allaah.

From the Qur'an:
Allaah Ta'aala said: {And they were not commanded except to worship one God; La Ilaha Illa Huwa (None is worthy of worship but Him). Exalted is He above whatever they associate with Him.} [9: 31]
He also said: {And they were not commanded except to worship Allaah, (being) sincere to Him in religion, (and) upright.} [98: 5]
And other verses.

From the Sunnah:
1. Imam Bukhari said in his Sahih: «The chapter regarding what has come in the Messenger of Allah -Sallallaahu 'Alayhi Wa Sallam-'s calling his nation to the Tawheed of Allaah» And he mentioned in there some Ahaadeeth, amongst it are:
Mu'aadh Ibn Jabal (Radhiallaahu 'Anhu) said that the Prophet -Sallallaahu 'Alayhi Wa Sallam- said: ”O Mu'aadh, do you know what is the right of Allaah upon His servants?“ He said: "Allaah and His messenger know best."
He -Sallallaahu 'Alayhi Wa Sallam- said: ”That they should worship Him and not associate any partners with him. Do you know what their right upon Him is?“ He said: "Allaah and His messenger know best."
He -Sallallaahu 'Alayhi Wa Sallam- said: ”That he shall not punish them.“

2. The Messenger of Allah -Sallallaahu 'Alayhi Wa Sallam- told Mu'aadh Ibn Jabal when he sent him to Yemen: ”You will be going to a nation of People of the Book **, so when you get there then call them to testify “La Ilaha Illallah” and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah, and if they obey you in that, then inform them that Allaah has made obligatory upon them five prayers every morning and evening…“ [Saheeh Al-Bukhaari & Muslim]
In another narration it says: "And let the first thing that you ( them towards be the worship of Allaah 'Azza Wa Jal, and if they know Allah…. " [Saheeh Al-Bukhaari & Muslim]
And in another narration: "Then let the first thing you call them towards be that they profess the oneness of Allaah Ta'aala (Tawheed), and if they learn (know) that.…." [Saheeh Al-Bukhaari]

Ibn Hajar Al-Asqalani said concerning these three narrations: “And joining them together would be by saying that the intended meaning is that worshiping Allaah is Tawheed of Him, and His Tawheed is testifying to that (that none is worthy of worship but Him :“La Ilaha Illallah”) and (testifying) to the Message of His Prophet (Sallallaahu 'Alayhi Wa Sallam), and it commenced with these two, because they are the basis of the Religion, which without it no deed is accepted. (7)

And he said on another page: “And joining them is to say that the intended meaning by worship: is At-Tawheed, and the meaning of At-Tawheed is: the declaration of the two testifications of faith, and that saying of his (The Prophet’s -Sallallaahu 'Alayhi Wa Sallam is pointing to Tawheed. And his saying ”and if they know Allah“ means «if they know the Tawheed of Allah», and the intended meaning of "knowledge” is affirmation and obediance”. (8)

3. Al-Bayhaqi (D. 458 H.) said: «Chapter one concerning the Tawheed of Allaah in His worship without (associating) anyone else» then he mentioned the saying of the Prophet -Sallallaahu 'Alayhi Wa Sallam- : ”Whoever professes Tawheed, and rejects whatever is worshipped besides Allah, his blood and wealth becomes inviolable and his reckoning is upon Allaah.“ (9) [Saheeh Muslim]


From the sayings of the Salaf and the Scholars:

Qatadah (d. 117 H. –a Tabi'i) said concerning the verse: {And he made it a word remaining among his descendants} [43:28] «Tawheed and Ikhlaas (sincerity), there will always remain in his descendants who will profess the Tawheed of Allah and worship Him.» (10)
Yahyaa Ibn Sallaam (D. 200 H.) said: “So He said: {O my people, worship Allaah} profess Tawheed of Allaah {you have no deity other than Him. You are not but inventors [of falsehood].} [11:50] Whoever worships anything besides Allaah Subhaanahu Wa Ta'aala then he has fabricated a lie upon Allaah Ta'aala, because Allaah 'Azza Wa Jal commanded His servants to worship Him alone and not to associate anything with Him.” (11)

Ibn Jarir At-Tabari (d. 310 H.) said in the interpretation of the words of Allaah Ta'aala: {And Ibraaheem enjoined it upon his sons and [so did] Ya'qoob} [2:132], Abu Ja`far said: “What Allaah Ta'aala means by {enjoined it} is: enjoining this word. And what is meant by 'the word' is {I have submitted to the Lord of the worlds.} [2:131], and that is Islam, the one which Allaah had commanded His Prophet -Sallallaahu 'Alayhi Wa Sallam- with, and that is having sincerity in worship and Tawheed for Allaah, and submission of the heart and limbs to Him." (12)
Abu Ja`far An-Nahhas (d. 338 H.) said: “Ma`mar narrated that Qatadah said concerning the verse: {the highest description.} [16: 60] : ‘(It is) La Ilaha Illallah.’
And Sa'eed narrated that Qatadah said concerning the verse: {the highest description.}: ‘It is Ikhlas and Tawheed..’
And the meaning of both is the same: for Allaah 'Azza Wa Jal is Tawheed and rejection of all that is worshipped besides Him.” (13)

Ibn Katheer (d. 774 H.) said in his Tafseer: “Then Allaah Ta'aala said, informing that he is Al-Ahad (The One) As-Samad (The Eternal), the One who there is no ilah besides Him, and He said: {Allaah – La Ilaha Illa Huwa, And upon Allaah let the believers rely.} [64:13], the first part is informing about Tawheed, and it is in the meaning of seeking, i.e. profess Ilaahiyyah (14) for Him, and keep it solely/sincerely for Him, and have reliance upon Him.” (15)

And there are many others besides them.



At-Tawheed: The actual message of all the Prophets -`alayhem as-Salam-:

All the Messengers:
Allaah Ta'aala said:
{And We sent not before you any messenger except that We revealed to him that, "La Ilaha Illa Ana, so worship Me."} [21:25]
{And We certainly sent into every nation a messenger, (saying), "Worship Allaah and avoid Taaghoot (16)."} [16:36]
{When the messengers had come to them before them and after them, (saying), "Worship not except Allaah."} [41:14]


Individually:

Nooh (Noah) 'Alayhis Salaam:
{And We had certainly sent Nuh to his people, and he said, "O my people, worship Allaah; you have no God other than Him; then will you not fear Him?"} [23: 23]

Ibraheem (Abraham) 'Alayhis Salaam:
{And Ibrahim, when he said to his people, "Worship Allaah and fear Him. That is best for you, if you should know. You worship besides Allaah only idols, and you only invent falsehood. Indeed, those you worship besides Allaah have no power to give you provision, so seek your provision from Allah, and worship Him and be grateful to Him. To Him you will be returned."} [29:16-17]

Hud 'Alayhis Salaam:
{And to the 'Aad [We sent] their brother Hud. He said, "O my people, worship Allaah (Alone); you have no God other than Him. Then will you not fear Him?"} [7: 65]
{They said, "Have you come to us that we should worship Allaah alone and leave what our fathers have worshipped? Then bring us what you promise us, if you are of the truthful ones."} [7: 70]

Saalih 'Alayhis Salaam:
{And to the Thamood [We sent] their brother Salih. He said, "O my people, worship Allaah (Alone); you have no God other than Him.} [7: 73]

Shu`ayb 'Alayhis Salaam:
{And to (the people of) Madyan (We sent) their brother Shu'ayb. He said, "O my people, worship Allaah; you have no deity other than Him.} [7: 85]

Ya`qoob (Jacob) 'Alayhis Salaam:
{Or were you witnesses when death approached Yaqub, when he said to his sons, "What will you worship after me?" They said, "We will worship your Ilah (God) and the God of your fathers, Ibraaheem and Ismaaeel and Is'haaq - one God. And to Him we submit (in Islam)."} [2:133]

Eesaa (Jesus) 'Alayhis Salaam:
{And the Maseeh (Messiah) had said, "O Children of Israeel, worship Allaah, my Lord and your Lord." Indeed, he who associates others with Allaah - Allaah has forbidden him Paradise, and his abode is the Fire. And there are not for the wrongdoers any helpers.} [5:72]

Muhammad Sallallaahu 'Alayhi Wa Sallam:
{Say, (O Muhammad), "Indeed, I have been commanded to worship Allaah, (being) sincere to Him in religion. And I have been commanded to be the first (among you) of the Muslims." Say, "Indeed I fear, if I should disobey my Lord, the punishment of a tremendous Day." Say, "Allaah (alone) do I worship, sincere to Him in my religion.} [39: 11-14]


From the Sunnah:

Ibn 'Abbas Radhiallaahu 'Anhu said: When the Prophet Sallallaahu 'Alayhi Wa Sallam sent Mu'adh Radhiallaahu 'Anhu to Yemen he (Sallallaahu 'Alayhi Wa Sallam) told him: ”You are going to people of the Ahlul Kitaab,. so let the first thing you invite them to be that they profess Tawheed, and when they come to know Allaah, inform them that Allaah has enjoined on them, five prayers in every day and night …."“The Hadeeth. [Saheeh Al-Bukhari]

From the sayings of the Pious Salaf and the Scholars:

Qatadah (d. 117 H.) said concerning the verse: {For each of you We prescribed a law (Sharee'ah) and a method (Minhaaj).} [5: 48] «i.e. a Sabeel (path) and a Sunnah (way). And the Sunan (ways) are different: for the Tawrah (Torah) there was a Sharee'ah (laws), for the Injeel (Bible) there was a Sharee'ah, for the Qur'aan there was a Sharee'ah, Allaah permitted therein whatever He wished, and He forbade therein whatever He wished as a trial, so that it may be known who are those that obey Him from those who disobey Him. But the one Religion that none is accepted but it: is Tawheed and Ikhlaas for Allaah, that which the Messengers came with.» (17)
Ibn Jarir At-Tabari (d. 310 H.) said: "The meaning of what Allaah Ta'aala said (is): And We have not sent before you O Muhammad a messenger to one of the nations but that We revealed unto him that there is no worshipped being in the heavens or on earth besides Me who is worthy of worship, so worship Me, He said: So keep your worship purely for Me, and single only me with Uloohiyah (worship).” (18)

Ibn Katheer (d. 774 H.) said: “Then He explained it with His saying: {that we worship none but Allâh (Alone), and that we associate no partners with Him,.} [3:64] No idol, image, cross, taaghoot, fire, or anything, but we keep our worship purely for Allaah alone, He has no partners. And this was the call of all the Messengers.”
He also said: “The call of all the Messengers before him (Sallallaahu 'Alayhi Wa Sallam) was towards Islaam, and its basis is worshipping Allaah alone, He has no partners.” (19)
And he said: “And the Messenger of Allah -Sallallaahu 'Alayhi Wa Sallam- said: "We the Prophets are (like) Awlaadu 'Allaat (20) our religion is one." Meaning:. the purpose is worshipping Allaah alone, He has no partners, with varying laws (Sharee'ah) for His Messengers, like how Allaah Ta'aala said: {For each of you We prescribed a law (Sharee'ah) and a method (Minhaaj).} [5:48] (21)

Mulla 'Ali Al-Qaari (d. 1016 H.) said in his Sharh (commentary) of Fiqh Al-Akbar (Page 49): “And the Imam (Abu Haneefah) had turned away from discussing the issue of (Allah’s) existence sufficing by what is apparent in the rank of observation, for it comes in the Revealed Book (The Qur'aan): {Can there be doubt about Allaah, Creator of the heavens and earth?} [14: 10], {If you asked them, 'Who created the heavens and earth…} [29: 61] so the existence of Al-Haqq (Allaah) is firmly established in the Fitrah (natural disposition) of the creation, as is indicated in Allaah -Subhaanahu Wa Ta'aala- saying: {The fitrah of Allaah upon which He has created [all] people.} [30: 30], and is also indicated in the hadeeth: ”Every child is born upon the Fitrah of Islaam“ (22), for the Anbiyaa –peace be upon them- came to explain Tawheed, and to make clear the Oneness of Allaah, and that is why their words and their proofs were united upon the word: “La Ilaha Illa Allah”, and they were not commanded to order their people to say: Allaah exists, but they intended to make it clear that besides Him (Allaah) there is nothing worthy of worship, as a reply to those who assume and fancy it as such, as they said: "These are our intercessors with Allaah" (Surah Yoonus: 18), and "We only worship them that they may bring us nearer to Allaah in position." [10: 3], though Tawheed does inform of His existence with extra support.”


PART 2: What Tawheed comprises of




( * ) Translation: None is worthy of worship but Allah, Alone, He has no partners.
( ** ) People of the Book are the Jews and Christians.
(1) Tafseer Al-Qur'aan Al-'Azeez by Ibn Abi Zamanin – it is an abridged version of the Tafseer of Yahyaa Ibn Salaam (3/415)
(2) Naqadh Al-Imaam Abi Sa'eed 'Uthman Ad-Darimi (1/152).
(3) Ma'aani Al-Qur'aan Al-Kareem by Abu Ja'far An-Nahhas (6/23)
(4) Al-Jaami' Li-Ahkaam Al-Qur'aan by Al-Qurtubi (1/171)
(5) Tafseer Ibn Katheer (4/389)
(6) Jaami' Al-'Uloom Wa Al-Hikam by Ibn Rajab Al-Hanbali (2/605)
(7) Fath Al-Baari (3/419)
(8) Fath Al-Baari: (13/367)
(9) Al-Arba'oon As-Sughraa by Al-Bayhaqi (p. 23)
(10) Tafseer Al-Qur'aan by 'Abdur Razzaaq As-San'aani (2/196), and Jaami' Al-Bayaan (Tafsir) by At-Tabari (21/589)
(11) Tafseer Al-Qur'aan Al-'Azeez by Ibn Abi Zamanin (2/295)
(12) Tafsir At-Tabari (3/93-94)
(13) Ma'aani Al-Qur'aan (4/77)
(14) Al-Ilaahiyyah, and Al-Uloohah, and Al-Uloohiyyah, all mean 'Ibaadah (worship). (Al-Muhkam Wa Al-Muheet Al-A'zam by Ibn Sayyideh – 4/358)
(15) Tafseer Al-Qur'aan Al-A'zeem (8/138)
(16) Taaghoot are the devils, idols, and all those things which are worshipped besides Allaah.
(17) Tafsir At-Tabari [Jaami' Al-Bayaan] (10/385)
(18) Tafsir At-Tabari (18/427)
(19) Tafseer Al-Qur'aan Al-'Azeem by Ibn Katheer (2/55-56) and (3/382)
(20) Awlaadu/Ikhwatu 'Allaat: are brothers from one father but different mothers, the meaning of the Hadeeth is that the religion of all the Anbiyaa 'Alayhimus Salaam was one, but their Sharee'ahs (ahkam; rulings) were different. The hadeeth is reported in Saheeh Al-Bukhaari with a difference of wording.
(21) Tafseer Al-Qur'aan Al-A'zeem (5/371)
(22) Reported in Saheeh Al-Bukhaari and others with a difference of wording.



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