Hammad bin Zayd (d. 179 H.)
الاثنين 28 / ربيع الأول / 1433 هـ - الموافق 20 / فبراير / 2012 م

Arabic - عربي

Hammad bin Zayd
(98 - 179 Hijri)

Prepared by:
Um Abdullah al-Misawi

His Name:
Hammad bin Zayd bin Dirhm, the freed slave of the family of Jareer bin Haazm al-Jahdami.
His Kunya: Abu Ismaeel.
His Nickname: al-Azraq. (1)
His hometown was al-Basrah. His grandfather was one of Sijistan's captives(2). His father, Zayd was the slave of Haazm, abu Jareer. When Haazm died, he was manumitted by Haazm's sons, Yazeed and Jareer.(3)

His Birth:
Hammad bin Zayd was born in year 98 Hijri. It was narrated from his mother that he was born during the caliphate of Umar bin Abdul al-Azeez, and it was narrated from his aunt that he was born during the caliphate of Sulaymaan bin Abdul al-Malik. (4)
The reign of Sulayman lasted for two years and eight months, from 96 A.H. to Safar 99 A.H. And the caliphate of Umar bin Abul al-Azeez lasted for two years and five months. It began eight days after Sulaymaan's death and ended in 101 A.H. (5)

His Teachers:

He was a contemporary of most of the Tabi'een of al-Basra and others (6), among them are the following:
- Ayyub as-Sakhtiyani; Hammad bin Zayd said, "Hammad bin abi Sulaymaan came to al-Basrah, but Ayyub did not visit him, thus, we did not visit him. When Ayub does not visit someone, we will not visit him."(7) Yahya bin Ma`een said: " Hammad bin Zayd knew Ayyub well." (8) Ayyub died when Hammad bin Zayd was 34 years old. (9)
- Zayd bin Dirham (his father).
- Thabit al-Bunani.
- Asim bin abi an-Najood, he narrated from him the huroof of the Qira’at (different recitations of the Quran).
- Abdullah bin Tawoos.
- Ataa' bin as-Sa’eb.
- Amr bin Dinar al-Makki.
- Abu Amr bin al-Ala' An-Nahwi (the grammarian).
And many other teachers. (10)

His Students:

- Al-Ash`ath bin Ishaq as-Sijistanee (the father of Abu Dawood, the author of Sunan Abu Dawood).
- Sufyan ath-Thawri
- Abdullah Ibn al-Mubarak
- Sufyan bin `Uyaynah
- Abdur-Rahman bin Mahdi
- Ali bin al-Madini
- Qutaibah bin Sa`eed
- Wakee` Bin Al-Jarrah
And many other students. (11)

His life and the views of the critics on him:

Ibn Sa`d said: " Hammad bin Zayd….was trustworthy [thiqah], well-established [thabt], and an authority [hujjah] (on knowledge), and a narrator of numerous hadeeths." (12)
Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal said, "Hammad bin Zayd is from the Imams of the Muslims".(13)
Abu Ya`la al-Khaleeli said, "Hammad bin Zayd…was trustworthy (thiqa). There is consensus (on his merit and trustworthiness). He narrated hadeeths in the two books of saheeh hadeeth (i.e. Saheeh Bukhari and Saheeh Muslim). The imams approved of him … And there was correspondence between (Imam) Malik bin Anas and him, and he used to admire Malik's opinion. His grandchildren were judges, and followers of the Maliki mathhab (school of judicial thought)." (14)

Abdur-Rahman bin Mahdi said, " The imams of people during their era are four: Hammad bin Zayd in al-Basrah, Sufyaan in al-Kufah, Malik in al-Hijaaz, and Al-Awza`i in ash-Sham." (15)
He also said, "I have not seen any who is more knowledgeable about the creed, and hadeeths related to the creed than Hammad bin Zayd. (16)
He, Abdur-Rahman bin Mahdi, said, "I have not seen a jurist who is more knowledgeable than Hammad bin Zayd in al-Basrah." (17)

Yazeed bin Zurai` was asked about his opinion on Hammad bin Zayd and Hammad bin Salamah: Which of them is more authority in the hadeeth? He said, "Hammad bin Zayd, and the latter was a righteous man."(18)
Sulayman bin Harb said, " I heard Hammad bin Zayd narrating hadeeth and he would say: I heard it fifty years ago, and I have not narrated it before today." (19)
Ubayd Allah bin al-Hasan said, "It is only the two Hammads, so if you seek knowledge, seek it from the two Hammads." (20) He means Hammad bin Zayd and Hammad bin Salamah. Both of them narrated from many sheikhs, and many narrators of hadeeths narrated from them. (21)

Ibn al-Mubarak said:
O who seek knowledge! ** Go and study under Hammad bin Zayd
You will acquire forbearance and knowledge ** then record it (i.e. knowledge) (22)
And avoid innovation from ** the reports of Amr bin Ubayd(23) (24)

Muhammad bin At-Tabbaa' said, "I have rarely seen a man who is wiser than Hammad bin Zayd." (25)
Ibn Hibban said, "He was one of the proficient memorizers and religiously pious men. He used to read all the hadeeths that he narrated, from memory. And he was blind." (26)
Ibn Hajar said, "Hammad bin Zayd …was a trustworthy authority and jurist. It was said that he was blind. His blindness might have taken place in later years of his life because it was authentically reported that he used to write." (27)
Abdur-Rahman bin Mahdi said, "If you see someone from al-Basrah who loves Hammad bin Zayd, then he is a follower of the Sunnah." (28)
Adh-Dhahabi said, " I do not know of any disagreement among the scholars that Hammad bin Zayd was one of the Imams of the Salaf [pious predecessors], and from among the most proficient, upright, and errorless memorizers though he narrated numerous hadeeths. May Allah’s Mercy be upon him." (29)

His death:
Hammad bin Zayd died on Friday, 10th of Ramaadan, 179 A.H. at the age of 81. His funeral prayer was led by Sulaymaan bin Ali al-Hashimee who was the governor of Basarah during the reign of Haroon ar-Rasheed. (30) Imam Malik’s death was six months before his. (31)

The Family of Hammad bin Zayd:
Al-Qadi Iyad wrote in the biography of the great grandchild of Imam Hammad bin Zayd, Ismaa'eel bin Ishaaq bin Ismaa'eel bin Hammad:
"Before mentioning his biography, we will briefly mention some news of the family of Hammad bin Zayd, and their great status ... The men of this family though numerous and famous, were from among the most knowledgeable families in Iraq, and the noblest and most religious. They spread the Maliki school of jurisprudence there (i.e. Iraq), and people learned it from them. Among them were great imams of jurisprudence, scholars of hadeeth and sunnah. All of them were men of sunnah (upon the right creed).” (32)

(1) “Al-Ansab” by As-Sam’ani (1/121).
(2) “Ath-Tiqat” by Ibn Hibban (6/218)
(3) “Tabaqat al-Kubra” by Ibn Sa’d (9/287)
(4) “Tabaqat al-Kubra” (9/287); and “At-Tarikh Al-Kabir” by al-Bukhari (3/25)
(5) “Al-Hidayah wal-Irshad Fi Marifat Ahl Ath-Thiqa was-Sadad” by Al-Kalabathi (1/200)
(6) “Hilyat Al-Awliya” by Abu Nu`aim Al-Asbahani (6/260)
(7) “Tabaqat Al-Kubra” by Ibn Sa`d (9/287)
(8) “At-Ta`deel wat-Tajreeh” by Abu Waleed Al-Baji (1/524)
(9) “Tabaqat Al-Kubra” (9/287)
(10) “At-Tarikh Al-Kabir” by Al-Bukhari (3/25); “Al-Jarh wat-Ta`deel” by Ibn Abi Hatim (3/137); “Ghayat An-Nihaya” by Ibn Al-Jazari” (1/233); and “Tahdhib Al-Kamal” by Al-Mizzi (7/240-242)
(11) “Tahdhib Al-Kamal” by Al-Mizzi (7/242-245)
(12) “Tabaqat Al-Kubra” by Ibn Sa`d (9/287)
(13) “Al-Jarh wa At-Ta`deel” by Ibn Abi Hatim (1/177)
(14) “Al-Irshad Fi Marifat Ulama Al-Hadeeth” by Khalil Al-Khaleeli (2/498)
(15) “Ahadeeth fi Dham Al-Kalam wa Ahleh” by Abu Ismail Al-Harawi (5/169-170)
(16) “Al-Jarh wat-Ta`deel” by Ibn Abi Hatim (1/177); and “Hilyat Al-Awliya” (6/257)
(17) “Al-Jarh wat-Ta`deel” (1/181)
(18) “Al-Jarh wat-Ta`deel” (1/181)
(19) “Al-Jarh wat-Ta`deel” (1/178)
(20) “Al-Jarh wat-Ta`deel” (1/179)
(21) “Siyar A`lam An-Nubala” by Adh-Dhahabi (7/464)
(22) “Siyar A’lam An-Nubala” (7/459); “At-Tarikh Al-Kabir” by Al-Bukhari (3/25); “Al-Jarh wat-Ta`deel” (1/179); and “Hilyat Al-Awliya” (6/258); with some variation in their wordings.
(23) A leader of the Mu’tazili sect during his time, he was an mubtade` (innovator) who used to call people to his innovation.
(24) “Ahadeeth fi Dham Al-Kalam wa Ahleh” (5/219); and “Al-Kamel Fi Du`afa Ar-Rijal” by Ibn Adi (5/100)
(25) “Al-Jarh wat-Ta`deel” by Ibn Abi Hatim (1/182)
(26) “Mashahir Ulama Al-Amsar” by Ibn Hibban (pg. 248)
(27) “Taqrib At-Tahthib” by Ibn Hajar (pg. 268)
(28) “Al-Jarh wat-Ta`deel” (1/183)
(29) “Siyar A’lam An-Nubala” by Adh-Dhahabi (7/461)
(30) “Tabaqat Al-Kubra” (9/287)
(31) “Siyar A`lam An-Nubala” (7/462)
(32) “Tartib Al-Madarik wa Taqrib Al-Masalik” by Al-Qadi Iyad (4/276-278) Tahqiq: At-Tanji


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