Explaining TASHBEEH In Regards to the Attributes of Allah
    
الاثنين 7 / جمادى الآخرة / 1432 هـ - الموافق 9 / مايو / 2011 م


In Arabic - عربي


Explanation of what TASHBEEH is in regards to Allah’s Attributes



PREPARED BY:
Um Abdullah Al-Misawi
for : as-salaf.com

TRANSLATED BY
Abdus-Samee’ Abdus-Salaam

Translation Revised by:
Staff of as-Salaf.com




Introduction

It had preceded in the article introduction to the creed of the Pious Salaf regarding Allaah’s Attributes that the fundamentals, which the Islaamic creed is based upon with regard to Allaah’s Attributes, are:

- Affirmation of what Allaah has affirmed for Himself, or affirmed for Him by His Messenger, of attributes; and to have eemaan (faith, belief) in them.
- Freeing Allaah from being similar to the creation (Tashbih)
- Not delving into the manner of how the Attributes are (i.e. their reality; kayfiyyah).

This article will discuss the second fundamental, which is freeing Allaah from being similar to His creation and not likening His Essence and Attributes to the essences and attributes of the creation.


Definition of Tashbeeh

Linguistically, the word At-Tashbeeh is likening something to another, as tashbeeh is tamtheel; “shabbaha” (from tashbeeh) means to make something equivalent to something else. (1)
Abul Qasim Ismail Al-Asbahani (2) (d. 535 H.) said: «As for Tashbeeh ... it is said: I resembled something to something meaning likened it to it, and compared it to it, either by essence, or attributes or actions (i.e. using analogy).» (3)



Proofs freeing Allaah from At-Tashbeeh and At-Tamtheel (drawing parallels to Allaah)

Allaah the Most High said: {There is nothing like Him; and He is the All-Hearer, the All-Seer.} [42:11].
Abu Mansoor Ma`mar bin Ahmad al-Asbahani (d. 418 H) said: “The statement, {There is nothing like Him} negates all forms of Tashbeeh and Tamtheel; while the statement, {...and He is the All-Hearer, the All-Seer} negates all forms of Ta`teel (negation of the attributes) and misinterpretation (tawil). This is the creed of Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa’ah and al-Athar.” (4)

Allaah also said: {Lord of the heavens and the earth, and all that is between them, so worship Him (Alone) and be constant and patient in His worship. Do you know of any who is similar to Him (samiyya)?} [19: 65] The meaning of samiyya in the above verse is: likeness or resemblance. Allaah said: {And there is none co-equal or comparable unto Him.} [112: 4]. Meaning He has no co-equal or parallel.



TASHBEEH in Allaah’s Attributes

Firstly: Tashbeeh in Allah’s Attributes occurs by likening Allaah’s Attributes to the attributes of the creation such as when a Muslim believes or says that Allaah’s Life is like the life of the creatures; or Allaah’s Word is like the word of human beings; or Allaah’s Face is like the creations’ face and so on. So negation of Tashbeeh and Tamtheel would be to believe that Allaah’s Attributes are not like the attributes of the creations and that they are upon a manner that befits the majesty of Allah and His perfection, which we do not know; and our duty is to believe in them and submit.

Ishaq bin Rahwaih (5) (d. 238 H) said: «At-Tashbeeh takes place when one says: (His) hand is like a hand, or similar to a hand; or hearing like a hearing or similar to a hearing. So if he says [Allaah’s] hearing is like a hearing or similar to a hearing, this is drawing similarities between Allaah and His creation (Tashbeeh). However, if he says as Allaah the Most High stated [that He has]: Hand, Hearing and Sight without saying how or saying it is similar to [his] hearing or like [his] hearing, such is not regarded as Tashbeeh. It is as stated by Allaah the Most High in His Book: {There is nothing like Him; and He is the All-Hearer, the All-Seer.} [42: 11] (6)

Khushaish bin Asram (7) (d. 253 H) stated in his book “Al-Istiqaamah” : «Jahm [bin Safwaan] denied that Allaah should have hearing and sight whereas Allaah the Mighty and Majestic has informed us in His Book and described Himself in His Book [that He has them]. Allaah the Exalted said: {There is nothing like Him; and He is the All-Hearer, the All-Seer.} [42: 11]. Then He informed about His creation saying: {So We made him hearer and seer.} [76: 2]. These are attributes that are from the Attributes of Allaah which He informed us that it is also found in His creation, except that we do not say: His hearing is like the hearing of human beings nor that His Sight is like their sights ...»
Then he mentioned evidences indicating that Allaah Hears and Sees in addition to other attributes, and said: «Allaah has indeed described Himself with a lot of things He made in His creation, and He is the One who said: {There is nothing like Him...} Allaah has only obligated upon the believers to follow His Book and the Sunnah of His Messenger.» (8)

Uthman ad-Darimi (9) (d. 280 H.) stated in his refutation against Bishr al-Maarisee al-Mu’tazilee:
«The opponent also alleged that al-Muqree narrated on the authority of Harmalah bin ‘Imraan on the authority of Aboo Moosaa Yoonus on the authority of Aboo Hurayrah (may Allaah be pleased with him) that ”the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) recited the verse: {Truly, Allaah is Ever All-Hearer, All-Seer} [4: 58], then he placed his thumb on his ears and the one next to it on his eyes.“ (10); indeed we know this is from the narration of al-Muqree and others, as reported by the opponent, except that he alleged that some compilers of hadeeth affirmed with it a sight with an eye like an eye (of his creation) and hearing like a hearing that is a "Jaarihan murakkab" (compound limb). It would be said to this opponent: As for your claim against them that they affirmed hearing and sight for Him; then you have spoken the truth. But your claim against them that it is like an eye or a hearing, is falsehood you have alleged against them, because there is nothing similar to Him, nor are His Attributes similar to any attribute.
As for your claim that they said: ‘Jaarih Murakkab (a compound limb), then this is disbelief as no one among the Muslims says such. However, we affirm hearing, sight and eye for Him without assigning a manner (kayfiyyah) to the attribute, just as He has affirmed it for Himself in what He has revealed of His Book and the Messenger (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) affirmed for Him. This thing that is repeated time after time: limb, organ, and the likes of it; is pleonasm, myths and vilification, no one among mankind says it. And indeed we have narrated the narrations of hearing, sight and eye at the beginning of this book with their chains of narrators and wordings from Allaah’s Messenger (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam). So we say as he said and we intend with them just as he intended, and assigning a specific manner/description (kayfiyyah) to the attributes is lifted from us, and mentioning of organs and limbs are a pretence and vilification from you.»
(11)

Abu Ishaq Ibraheem bin Shaqla (12) al-Hanbalee (d. 369 H) said to Aboo Sulaymaan ad-Dimashqee - one of the followers of Ibn Kullaab - during a debate between the both of them when Aboo Sulaymaan said to him:
“You are Mushabbihah (i.e. those who liken Allah to His creation).”
Ibn Shaqla replied: "God forbid! Al-Mushabbih is the one who says (Allaah’s) Face is like my face and [Allaah’s] Hand is like my hand. But we say: ‘He has a Face just as He has affirmed a face for Himself, and He has a Hand just as He affirmed a Hand for Himself, {There is nothing like Him; and He is the All-Hearer, the All-Seer.} [42: 11]. Whoever says this is indeed safe.” (13)

Abu Uthman As-Sabuni (14) Ash-Shaafi’ee (d. 449 H) said: “They (i.e. the People of Hadeeth) do not believe in likening His attributes to the attributes of His creation. They say, ‘He created Adam with His Two Hand as He informed of it in His saying: {(Allaah) said: “O Iblees (Satan)! What prevents you from prostrating yourself to one whom I have created with Both My Hands...”} [38:75]. They do not distort the words from its proper meanings by interpreting the Two Hands to mean two blessings or two powers as distorted by the Mu’tazilah and the Jahmiyyah - may Allaah destroy them-. They do not assign a manner (kayfiyyah) to them, nor liken them to the Hands of creation as done by the Mushabbihah - may Allaah forsake them-.” (15)

Al-Haafidh Adh-Dhahabi (d. 748 H.) said: “Affirming His attributes does not necessitate Tashbeeh and Tajseem (anthropomorphism) because Tashbeeh is to say [Allaah’s] Hand is like our hand ... But if it is said, [He has] a Hand that does not resemble hands just as His Essence does not resemble essences, His hearing does not resemble hearings, and His sight does not resemble sights; that is indeed freeing Him from imperfection.” (16)


Secondly: Tashbeeh and Tamtheel occur in the kayfiyyah and reality of the attribute, that is to say how it is in reality, and not in the general meaning of the attribute. Delving into the kayfiyyah (i.e. reality; description; how it is) is tashbeeh as a person describes something based on what he sees while Allaah says: {There is nothing like Him; and He is the All-Hearer, the All-Seer}.

Abdur-Rahman bin Mahdi (17), Aboo Sa`eed (d. 198 H) said to a youth among the children of Ja’far bin Sulaymaan: ‘Stay where you are.’ So he sat till the people parted. Then Ibn Mahdee said: ‘Do you know what is in this city of desires and differences, which I do not mind except your affair and what has reached me because the matter (i.e. innovations; deviancies) stays light as far as it is not in your (i.e. authorities; leaders) command. If he comes to you, it will be mighty and great.”
The boy said: ‘What is that, O Aboo Sa’eed?
He said: “It has reached me that you are talking about the [Essence] of the Lord - Exalted Be He-, describing Him and draw similarities with Him.”
Then the youth said: ‘Yes.’ and he began to talk about the attribute.
He said (i.e. Ibn Mahdi): ‘O my son! Take it easy till we talk first about the creation. If we are incapable [of talking] about the creations, we should be more incapable [of talking] about the Creator. I was informed about the hadeeth reported by Shu’bah from ash-Shaybaanee who said: “I heard Zara sy, ‘Abdullaah said regarding Allaah’s saying:” {Indeed he (Muhammad) did see of the Greatest Signs of his Lord.} [53: 18]
He asked: “Did he see Jibreel having six hundred wings?” He replied, ‘Yes.’ Then Abdur-Rahmaan said: ‘Describe to me one of Allaah’s creatures with six hundred wings.’ But the youth kept on looking at him.
Abdur-Rahmaan then said: ‘O my son! I am going to make the issue easy for. I am going to remove five hundred and ninety seven wings for you. So describe a creation with three wings (18) for me, Place the third wing in a place other than the two places that Allah normally places wings so that I may know.’
So the youth said: ‘O Aboo Sa’eed! We are incapable of describing the attribute of the creation; we should be more incapable of describing the attribute of the Creator. So bear witness that I have retracted from that and I seek Allaah’s forgiveness.” (19)


Ibn Abdul-Barr al-Maalikee (d. 463 H.) said: “It is absurd to say that the one who says about Allaah that which is in His Book is a mushabih (one who likens Allah’s Attributes to that of creation) when He does not describe how it is (kayfiyyah), and He affirms that there is nothing like Him.” (20)


Thirdly: Agreement in the generality of the name does not necessitate Tashbeeh and Tamtheel:

Uthman ad-Darimi (d. 280 H) said in his refutation against Bishr al-Marisee al-Mu’tazilee: “We describe Him with Names and not by assigning a manner to Him (kayfiyyah) or drawing similarities to Him, just as it is said: ‘He is a Generous King, Knower, Wise, Forbearing, Merciful, Courteous, Giver of Security, Mighty, Compeller and Supreme. It is permissible to name human being with some of these names even though it may be contrary to their description. So there is agreement in the names, but they differ in resemblance and manner (kayfiyyah). Just as it is said, ‘There is nothing in the world that that is is in Paradise except in names.’ That is to say, [there isn’t in the world like it] in resemblance, flavour, taste, view and colour. If such is the case, Allaah is the farthest from resemblance.” (21)

Ibn Khuzaimah (22) Ash-Shaafi’ee (d. 311 H) said: ‘Were it necessary that when Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Athaar affirm two Hands for their Lord as Allaah affirmed them for Himself and they affirm life for Him – Mighty and Majestic is our Lord -, and that He is the All-Hearing the All Seer who hears and sees, that they are Mushabbihah, as alleged against them by these ignorant people; it would have implied that everyone who calls Allaah a King, One who is Great, Courteous, Merciful, Compeller, and Supreme; has likened his Creator to His creation. May Allaah forbid that one who describes Allaah with what He has described Himself with in His Book or through His chosen Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) should be someone likening his Creator to His creation.” (23)

Abu Umar At-Talamanki (24) al-Maalikee (d. 429 H) said in his book, ‘Al-Wusool ilaa Ma’rifah al-Usool’:
“A group of people among the Mu’tazilah and Jahmiyyah said, ‘It is not permissible to name Allaah the Mighty and Majestic with these names in reality and name His creation with them. So they negate from Allaah the realities of the names and affirm them for the creation. If they are asked about what led them to this deviation? They will say agreement in naming necessitates tashbih.
We said: This is a departure from the language with which we have been addressed. This is because what is reasonable in the language is that resemblance in the language does not occur through naming. Tasbeeh is by resembling their essences, or forms/features therein, like white with white, black with black, tall with tall and short with short. Had it been that names necessitate similarity, all things would have been similar due to all of them being called a ‘thing’.” (25)

Abu Nasr As-Sijzee (26) al-Hanafee (d. 444 H) said: “The principle that is obligatory to know is that agreement in names does not necessitate agreement of the people called with it. So if we say: Allaah is Existent, Kind, One, Living, Knowing, Hearing, Seer, and speaks; and we say that the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) was existent, living, knower, hearing, seer and speaks; such does not mean drawing similarities. And no one disagrees with us among the pious predecessors and Imaams.” (27)


Fourth: Every Mu’atil (one who negates the Attributes) is a Mumathil (one who likens Allaah to His creation); and every Mumathil is a Mu’atil: This is because a Mu’atil imagined the similarity in his intellect which lead him to negating the attribute, because in his mind, affirming the attribute necessitates tashbeeh; and the Mumathil negated/nullified the attribute by likening the Creator to the creation since it is not the reality of the attribute, in addition to him cancelling the texts on negating tashbeeh.

Ibn Battah al-‘Ukbari (28) al-Hanbalee (d. 387 H) said in his book “al-Ibaanah” al-Kubra:
“The Jahmiyyah rejected these ahaadeeth, denying them and accusing the narrators of lying. Their rejection of these ahaadeeth, is a rejection against Allaah’s Messenger (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) and opposition to them. Whoever rejects Allaah’s Messenger has indeed rejected Allaah the Mighty and Majestic: {And whatsoever the Messenger (Muhammad) gives you, take it, and whatsoever he forbids you, abstain (from it)...} [59: 7]. But if the proof is established against the Jahmee, and he realizes the authenticity of these ahaadeeth without being able to deny them, he would say: ‘The hadeeth is authentic, however, the meaning of the Prophet’s statement: ‘Our Lord descends every night,’ is that His command descends. We would say: ‘The Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) only said, ‘Allaah the Mighty and Majestic descends’ and ‘Our Lord descends.’ If he had intended His command, he would have said, ‘The command of our Lord descends.’
The Jahmee will say: ‘If we say He descends, we have indeed said he descends whereas Allaah does not descend. Were He to descend, He would leave His place (yazul/zawal) because everything that descends is transient.
We would say: ‘Are you not the ones claiming that you are negating resemblance from the Lord of the universe? Indeed you have shifted from this creed to the most evil and hated of tashbeeh and worst of differing. This is because if you deny the narrations, and reject the hadeeth, then you have rejected Allaah’s Messenger (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) and accused him of lying. If you say, He does not descend except by departing (zawal), you have indeed likened Him to His creation, and claimed that He is incapable of descending except through departing, based on the description of the creation whom if he was in a place, another place will be devoid of him.
However, we believe our Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) and accept what he came with for it is what we have been commanded. We say as he said: ‘Our Lord descends,’ and we do not say: He departs (yazul), rather He descends in the manner He wishes. We do not describe His descent nor limit it, nor say His descent is His departing.”



Sayings of the Pious Predecessors and the Imaams after them regarding freeing Allaah from Tashbeeh

Abdur-Rahman bin al-Qasim (d. 191 H.) - the companion of Imaam Maalik - said: «It is not for anyone to describe Allaah except with what He has described Himself with in the Qur’aan; and one is not to liken His Hand with anything, nor His Face with anything. However, he should say, ‘He has two Hands just as He described Himself in the Qur’aan; He has a Face as He has described Himself. One should stop at where He described Himself in the Book (i.e. The Quran), because He – exalted is He - has no equal or similar. But He is Allaah; there is none worthy of worship but Him (la ilaha illa huwa) as He described Himself.» (29)

Nu`aym bin Hammad (d. 228 H) said: ‘It is obligatory upon every believer to believe in all what Allaah has described Himself with and he should avoid contemplating about the [essence] of Allaah –Blessed be He and Exalted. He should follow the hadeeth of the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi w sallam), which says: ”Contemplate about the creation but do not contemplate about the [essence] of the Creator.“ Nuaym said: ‘There is nothing like Him and nothing is similar to Him among things.” (30)

Uthman ad-Darimi (d. 280 H) said: «Just as there is nothing like Him, there is no hearing like His Hearing, and no sight is like His Sight. Both of them do not have an alike or a similar in the creation.» (31)
He also said: «All these ahaadeeth that have been reported, most of them are with regard to the descent of Allaah ... and we met the people of understanding and insight among our scholars upon acceptance of them and faith in them. No one among them denied them or refrained from narrating them till the emergence of this group (i.e. Jahmiyyah). So they confronted the narrations of Allaah’s Messenger with rejection and said: ‘How is this descent of His? We said, ‘We have not been obliged to know the manner of His descent in our religion nor can our hearts comprehend it, and there is nothing like Him among His creation that we should liken His Action or Attribute to their action or attribute.» (32)

Ibn Abi Zamanin (33) al-Maalikee (d. 399 H.) said: “These are the attributes of our Lord, which He described Himself with in His Book and described by His Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) [in the Sunnah], there is no defining any of them, nor likening, nor assumption; Glorified be the One whom {There is nothing like Him; and He is the All-Hearer, the All Seer}. Eyes have not seen Him so as to define how His Being is, but hearts see Him in the realities of faith in Him.” (34)

Yahya bin ‘Ammar al-Hanbalee (d. 442 H) stated in his letter to Sultan Mahmood: “On this subject, we are not in need of a word more than to believe in Him; to negate description of from Him, as well as to fend off doubts therein. We should be certain about what Allaah the Exalted and His Messenger (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) have said. We should not contemplate about that nor cast illusion, thoughts and whisperings at it. You should know with certainty that everything you imagine in your thought and illusion such as assigning a kayfiyyah (i.e. reality; description) or likening them to creation, then Allaah is contrary to it and other than it.” (35)

There are many other sayings from the pious predecessors regarding this, but we limited ourselves to what we have mentioned so as to not make it long.



Ruling on Tashbeeh

Likening Allaah’s Attributes to that of creation is disbelief as it constitutes rejection of the texts of the Qur’aan such as the saying of Allaah the Exalted: {There is nothing like Him; and He is the All-Hearer, the All-Seer.} [42: 11] and the word of Allaah: {And there is none co-equal or comparable unto Him.} [112: 4] as well as other texts on Allah’s transcendence; in addition to attributing imperfection to Allah -The Exalted-.

Nu’aym bin Hamad (d. 228 H) said: “Whoever likens Allaah with anything among His creation has committed disbelief; and whoever denies what Allaah has described Himelf with has disbelieved as there is no tashbeeh in what Allaah has described Himself with and His Messenger.” (36)

Ishaq bin Rahwaih (d. 238 H) said: ‘Whoever describes Allaah likening His attributes with the attribute of any of His creation is a disbeliever in Allaah the Most Great ...but it is to submit to Allaah’s command and what the Messenger prescribed.” (37)

Yazeed bin Harun (38) (d. 206 H.) :
Shaadh bin Yahyaa al-Waasitee said: “I was sitting with Yazeed bin Harun when a man came and said, ‘O Aboo Khaalid, what is your view about the Jahmiyyah?’ He said: ‘They should be asked to repent. Indeed the Jahmiyyah committed excess, and its extremism led it to negation; and the Mushabbihah (39) committed extremism that made them to commit tashbeeh. The Jahmiyyah should be asked to repent while the Mushabbihah like this ’, he accused them with a great thing.” (40)



FROM THE SIGNS OF THE PEOPLE OF INNOVATIONS is them calling Ahl As-Sunnah – Atharis-: Mushabbihah (39)

Ishaq bin Rahawaih (d. 238 H) said: “The sign of Jahm [bin Safwaan] and his associates is calling the People of the Jamaa’ah Mushabbihah. In fact they are the Mu’atilah (negators of Allah’s Attributes). If possible it should be said to them that they are Mushabbihah because of the likelihood of that. And that is because they say, ‘All of the Lord is in every place; (Him being) in the lowest depth of the earth and the uppermost part of the heavens the same. They lied in that, and that necessitates disbelief from them.” (41)

Abu Zur’ah ar-Razi (42) (d. 264 H) said: “Al-Mu’atilah the Negators are those who negate Allaah’s Attributes, which He has described Himself with in His Book and through His Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam). They rejected the authentic narrations that came from Allaah’s Messenger (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) with regard to the attributes; and they make tawil (47) of it with their twisted views so as to be in conformity their misguided beliefs, and they attribute its narrators with tashbeeh.
So whoever attributes tashbeeh to the ones who describe their Lord with what He has described Himself in His Book and through His Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam), without likening or drawing parallels, is a Mu’atil negator; and it is to be used against them, in their attribution of them [ahl assunnah] to tashbeeh, that they are mu’tila negators. This is what the people of knowledge used to say, such as Abdullah Ibn al-Mubarak and Wakee’ bin al-Jarrah.” (43)

Abu Hatim ar-Razi (d. 277 H) said: “The sign of the Jahmiyyah is them calling Ahlus-Sunnah: Mushabbihah.” (44)

Abu Uthman as-Sabuni (45) Ash-Shafi'i (d. 449 H) said: “The signs of innovations upon its people are apparent; and the most apparent of their signs are: their severe enmity towards the carriers of the narrations of the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam), their despising of them, and calling them Hashawis, ignorant, Dhahiris (literalists), and Mushabbihah. This is based on their belief that the narrations of Allaah’s Messenger is distant from knowledge, and that knowledge is what the devil casts to them; a product of their corrupted reasoning, the whisperings of their dark chests, the thoughts of their crippled hearts that are devoid of goodness, and their false doubts and arguments; [Allaah said]: {Such are they whom Allaah has cursed, so that He has made them deaf and blinded their sight.} [47: 23] He also said: {And whomsoever Allaah disgraces, none can honour him. Verily! Allaah does what He wills.} [22:18].” (46)



RELATED TOPICS
- Introduction to the Beliefs of the Pious Salaf Regarding Allah's Attributes
- The Meaning of The Pious Salaf's Statement: «Pass them as they have come»
- The Meaning of The Pious Salaf's Saying: «Bila Kayf»





(1) “As-Sihah Taj Al-Lugha” by Al-Jawhari (6/2236); “Tahdheeb al-Lugha” by Abu Mansour Al-Azhari (6/92)
(2) His complete bio here (link)
(3) “Al-Hujjah fee bayaan al-Mahajjah” by Isma’il Al-Asbahani (1/306)
(4) “Al-Hujjah fee bayaan al-Mahajjah” (1/244)
(5) Ibn Rahwaih’s complete bio here (link)
(6) His student Abu ‘Eesa At-Tirmidhee reported this from him in his “Sunan At-Tirmidhee” (2/42)
(7) Khushaish’s bio here (link)
(8) “At-Tanbeeh war-Radd alaa Ahli-Bida’i wal-Ahwaa’ “ by al-Maltee Ash-Shafi’ee (p. 89-90)
(9) Ad-Darimi’s bio here (link)
(10) Sunan Abee Daawood (no. 4730); chapter on As-Sunnah, section: fil-Jahmiyyah; its chain is authentic.
(11) An-Naqd by Ad-Darimi (2/688-689)
(12) Adh-Dhahabi said about him: “The sheikh of the Hanbalis and their fiqh scholar, he was an Imam in the fundamentals (of religion) and in fiqh, he died at the age of 54, in Rajab / year 369 H.” [Tarikh al-Islam (26/412)]
(13) “Tabaqaat al-Hanaabilah” by Ibn Abee Ya’laa (3/239)
(14) check footnote #45.
(15) “Aqeedat as-Salaf Ashaabul-Hadeeth” by As-Sabuni (p. 37) Tahqiq: Abu al-Yameen al-Mansooree, and (p. 161-162) with Tahqiq of Naasir al-Judai’
(16) “Al-Arba’een fi Sifaat Rabb al-‘Alameen” by Adh-Dhahabi (1/104)
(17) Imam Ibn Mahdi, born around 135 H, was from the greatest scholars of hadeeth and from the scholars of fiqh, from the trustworthy scholars of the salaf (predecessors). He was from the students of Imam Malik, and Imam Hammad bin Zayd and others. He died in Basrah yr 198 H. (Siyar A’lam Nubala and other sources)
(18) Some angels have 3 wings, see the Quran (35:1)
(19) “Sharh usool I`tiqad Ahl Assunnah” by Al-Lalaka’i (3/530-531); and narrated by Abu Nu`aym al-Asbahani in “Hilyat al-Awliya ” (9/8); also in “Siyar A`lam Nubala” by Adh-Dhahabi (9/196), and “Tarikh al-islam” also by him (13/284)
(20) “al-Istidhkar” by Ibn Abd al-Barr (8/150) Tahqiq Abdel Mu’tee Qal’aji, first addition; publisher: Dar Qutaibah>
(21) An-Naqd by ad-Darimi (1/302-303)
(22) His complete bio here (link)
(23) “Kitaab At-Tawheed” by Ibn Khuzaimah (1/64)
(24) At-Talamanki's bio here (link)
(25) “Al-Uluww li al-Aliyy al-Ghaffaar” by Adh-Dhahabee (p. 246)
(26) As-Sijzi's bio here (link)
(27) “Dar’u Ta’aarud al-Aql wan-Naql” by Ibn Taymiyyah (2/89-90)
(28) Ibn Battah's bio here (link)
(29) “Usool as-Sunnah” by Ibn Abi Zamanin al-Maliki (p. 75)
(30) “Sharh Usool I’tiqaad Ahlus-Sunnah” by Al-Laalikaa’ee (3/527)
(31) An-Naqd by ad-Darimi (1/308)
(32) “Ar-Radd alal-Jahmiyyah” by ad-Darimee (p. 79)
(33) Ibn Abi Zamanin was from the great scholars of hadeeth and Maliki fiqh. He was a pious man who gave charity and abandoned the luxuries of this worldly life, and he was a follower of the path of the Righteous predecessors. He passed away in the city of Elvira (in Andalus/spain), his home town, in 399 H. [“Tarteeb al Madarik” by Qadi ‘Iyad (7/184-185) ]
(34) “Usool as-Sunnah” by Ibn Abi Zamanin (p. 74)
(35) “Al-Hujjah fee Bayaan al-Mahajjah” by Isma’eel al-Asbahaanee (2/107)
(36) “Sharh Usool I’tiqaad Ahlus-Sunnah” (3/532), “Siyar A’laam an-Nubalaa” by Adh-Dhahabee (10/610); and “Taarikh Madeenah Dimashq” by Ibn Asaakir (62/163)
(37) “Sharh Usool I’tiqaad Ahlus-Sunnah” (3/532) with an authentic chain from the way of Abdur-Rahmaan bin Abee Hatim, who recorded it in his book “Ar-Radd alal-Jahmiyyah”.
(38) Yazeed bin Harun al-Wasiti, Abu Khalid, was from the great masterful scholars of Hadeeth amongst the scholars the pious predecessors, he was declared trustworthy by consensus of the scholars of the salaf. He was born in 118 H. And died in the city of Wasit in 206 H. ("Al-Irshad fi Ma'rifat Ulama al-Hadith" by al-Khalili, and other sources)
(39) Ones who liken Allah to His creation.
(40) “Sharh Usool I’tiqaad Ahlus-Sunnah” by Al-Laalikaa’ee (3/531-532)
(41) “Sharh Usool I’tiqaad Ahlus-Sunnah (3/531-532) with an authentic chain from the way of Abdur-Rahmaan bin Abee Hatim, who narrated it in his book, ‘Ar-Radd alal-Jahmiyyah”.
(42) Abu Zur’ah Ar-Razi, born around 200 H., was one of the great scholars of Islam, he was trustworthy, and an imam in knowledge and actions. He was strong in memory, smart, and pious with many virtues. He narrated from Imam Ahmad, Khallad bin Yahya and many others in Makkah, Madinah, Iraq, Egypt, Khurasan ..etc. From his students: Imam Muslim, At-Tirmidhi, Abu Dawud and many others. ("Siyar a'lam an-Nubala" by Adh-Dhahabi and other sources)
(43) “Al-Hujjah fee bayaan al-Mahajjah” (1/187)
(44) “Sharh Usool I’tiqaad Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa’ah” by Al-Laalikaa’ee (1/182) and (3/533)
(45) Abu Uthman Isma’il As-Sabuni, from the scholars of Naisabur, was from the great scholars of hadeeth, and Tafseer, he was known as “sheikh al-Islam” during his life, he was a pious scholar who faught for the Sunnah, and against the people of innovation. He learned from the students of Ibn Khuzaimah, As-Sarraj, and others. He passed away in 449 H. (Siyar A'lam An-Nubala' and other sources)
(46) “Aqeedatus-Salaf Ashaabul-Hadeeth” by Uthman As-Sabuni (p. 299) Tahqiq of Nasir al-Judai’. It was also reported by Imam Isma’il al-Asbahani through Imam As-Sabuni’s son, Abu Bakr, in “Al-Hujjah fi Bayan al-Mahajah” (1/203-204)
(47) Interpreting texts to a mean something other than their apparent/obvious meaning.



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